Why Are Household Electrical Wiring Color Coded

House Wiring Diagrams and Project Guides

Wiring Diagrams for Light Switches- Numerous diagrams for light switches including: switch loop, dimmer, switched receptacles, a switch combo device, two light switches in one box and more.

Wiring Diagrams for Receptacle Wall Outlets- Diagrams for all types of household electrical outlets including: duplex, GFCI, 15, 20, 30, and 50amp receptacles.

Wiring Diagrams for 3-Way Switches- Diagrams for 3-way switch circuits including: with the light at the beginning, middle, and end, a 3-way dimmer, multiple lights, controlling a receptacle, and troubleshooting tips.

4 Way Switch Wiring Diagrams- Diagrams for 4-way switch circuits including: various source and light locations, dimmer for a 4-way circuits, wiring for 4 locations, and troubleshooting tips.

3 Way and 4 Way Switches to Control Multiple Lights- Diagrams for wiring to control multiple light fixtures with 3 and 4-way switches.

Wiring Diagrams for a Fan/Light Kit- Diagrams include: using a light switch to control both the fan and light, separate light dimmer and fan speed controls, light dimmer and pull chain fan, and an exhaust fan switch and timer.

Wiring Diagrams for Multiple Receptacles- Diagrams for wiring multiple receptacles including circuits for duplex receptacles and ground fault interrupters.

Guide to Electrical Wiring in your House

Electrical Wiring inside a house can seem like a very inexplicable thing. Wiring inside a newly constructed building can be easily installed. However, proper supervision must be taken to ensure that the wiring system is carefully established. This is a comprehensive guide to help homebuyers understand how wiring works inside a building

An “Electrical wire” refers to a material that channels electricity from a power source to electrical appliances inside a building such as the lights, fans, kitchen appliances, etc. Generally, large wire cables bring electricity into a structure and smaller wires distribute it evenly to all electrical plug points inside the building.

Defects in Electrical Wiring

The quality of electrical products plays a major role regardless of whether it is for sockets, fittings or switches. Faulty material or improper fitting can cause sparks which can be dangerous and liable to ignition.  Some of the defects in electrical circuits are:

Short circuit: A short circuit is the result of extremely low resistance between two conductors that supply the electricity in the path of the circuit. This ends up in excessive current flowing through and can cause the main power supply to be impaired. In such situations, the fuse is blown out. Improper insulation and loose wiring are causes for short circuit.

The human body is a good conductor of electricity. A single electric shock caused by faulty wiring can prove fatal and hence, certain measures must be taken to ensure that the safety of human beings is maintained. One of the first steps to ensure human safety is earthing the AC supply system of the building. There is a sufficient supply of earthing and all electrical gadgets and circuits should have an earth wire as it is necessary to null leakages in the circuit and prevent electric shocks.

Beginners Guide to Electrical Terminology

If you’re new to the industry, the language used can appear quite daunting at first. This guide looks at some key terms and phrases that you’ll be learning about and using during your electrical training with us

able – A cable is made up of one or more conductors and their insulated surrounding

Twin and Earth (1) – This is the most common cable used in domestic electrical installations, it is a flat grey thermo-plastic sheathed cable. Inside, it has two single conductors of the same size that are both separately insulated, one is brown in colour denoting its intended use as the line conductor, and the other is blue, denoting its intended use as the neutral conductor. A third un-insulated conductor sits between the two and this is used as the Circuit Protective Conductor or ‘earth’ as it is commonly known.

Flex (2) – A flexible cable that has a soft rubber or thermoplastic outer sheath and individually insulated conductors inside it. Each individual conductor is made up of very fine strands of copper to allow the cable to repeatedly flex.

SWA (3) – Steel Wire Armour, this is a cable that is surrounded by a layer of armour made up of steel wire, it is generally used where the cable requires a high degree of protection.

LSHF (4) – Low Smoke Halogen Free cable is a cable with a particular type of insulation that is designed so that it emits a small amount of smoke and zero halogen when exposed to fire or heat.

‘Singles’ (5) –  A colloquial term used for when a cable is a self contained single conductor, can refer to any cable that is singular, however in a domestic setting PVC insulated singles are often what is mean by the use of the term.  

Units of measurement

Ohms – An Ohm is the electrical unit used for measuring resistance, its symbol is Ω.

Watt – This is a unit of power and is denoted by use of the letter W.

Voltage – Voltage is the difference in electrical potential between two different points, it can be thought of as electrical pressure, and it is denoted by the letter V or U.

Amperes – This is the term used to describe the flow of electrical current, it is denoted by the letter A.

AC- Alternating Current is an electric current which reverses direction periodically. AC current is the way that electricity is distributed through the power network in the UK.

DC – Direct Current is an electric current that travels in only one direction, this is the type of current that a battery produces.

Circuit breaker (1) – A type of protective device for circuits, it will protect a circuit from overload and fault currents.

Fuse (2) – A fuse is a protective device. They are designed so that when more current is drawn through them than they are designed to take, a part of it melts, causing the circuit to become open and the electricity supply to become disconnected.

RCD – Residual Current Device, this is a type of device used to disconnect the electrical supply to a circuit, or bank of circuits in the event of a fault from line to earth. It does this by essentially monitoring the line and neutral currents. If there was a fault between line and earth, the RCD would trip as there would be no current on the neutral conductor.

There are three commonly encountered types:

RCCB (3) – Residual Current Circuit Breaker, what most people commonly refer to as an ‘RCD’, will often be found in a consumer unit protecting a bank of circuits.

RCBO (4) – Residual Current Circuit Breaker with Overload protection, this combines the function of an RCD and a circuit breaker in one device and can be found protecting one circuit.

SRCD – Socket Residual Current Device, as the name suggests this type of RCD is integral to a socket outlet.

Electrical Wiring Guide

In order to wire your own home, you must comply with the requirements of the 2020 edition of the National Electrical Code (NEC). The NEC is not intended as a design specification nor an instruction manual for untrained persons, its purpose is the practical safeguarding of persons and property from hazards arising from the use of electricity and addresses fundamental safety principles.

Electrical wiring

Electrical wiring is an electrical installation of cabling and associated devices such as switches, distribution boards, sockets, and light fittings in a structure. Wiring is subject to safety standards for design and installation. Allowable wire and cable types and sizes are specified according to the circuit operating voltage and electric current capability, with further restrictions on the environmental conditions, such as ambient temperature range, moisture levels, and exposure to sunlight and chemicals.

Associated circuit protection, control and distribution devices within a building’s wiring system are subject to voltage, current and functional specification. Wiring safety codes vary by locality, country or region. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is attempting to harmonise wiring standards amongst member countries, but significant variations in design and installation requirements still exist.

Wiring installation codes and regulations are intended to protect people and property from electrical shock and fire hazards. They are usually based on a model code (with or without local amendments) produced by a national or international standards organisation, such as the IEC.

commonly known as the “wiring rules”, specifies requirements for the selection and installation of electrical equipment, and the design and testing of such installations

attempt has been made to harmonise national wiring standards in an IEC standard, IEC 60364 Electrical Installations for Buildings. Hence national standards follow an identical system of sections and chapters. However, this standard is not written in such language that it can readily be adopted as a national wiring code. Neither is it designed for field use by electrical tradesmen and inspectors for testing compliance with national wiring standards. By contrast, national codes, such as the NEC or CSA C22.1, generally exemplify the common objectives of IEC 60364, but provide specific rules in a form that allows for guidance of those installing and inspecting electrical systems.

Colour coding of wiring by region

In a typical electrical code, some colour-coding of wires is mandatory. Many local rules and exceptions exist per country, state or region. Older installations vary in colour codes, and colours may fade with insulation exposure to heat, light and aging.

Materials for wiring interior electrical systems in buildings vary depending on:

Intended use and amount of power demand on the circuit

Type of occupancy and size of the building

National and local regulations

Environment in which the wiring must operate.

Wiring systems in a single family home or duplex, for example, are simple, with relatively low power requirements, infrequent changes to the building structure and layout, usually with dry, moderate temperature and non-corrosive environmental conditions. In a light commercial environment, more frequent wiring changes can be expected, large apparatus may be installed and special conditions of heat or moisture may apply. Heavy industries have more demanding wiring requirements, such as very large currents and higher voltages, frequent changes of equipment layout, corrosive, or wet or explosive atmospheres. In facilities that handle flammable gases or liquids, special rules may govern the installation and wiring of electrical equipment in hazardous areas.

Should They Attend Your Home Inspection

DIY Home Inspection Checklist

I am NOT suggesting that you forego a professional home inspection from a licensed home inspector. Unless you ARE a professional home inspector, you should absolutely hire one after you’ve performed this checklist and your contract has been accepted.

Why?

Because a home inspection runs between $500 and $1,000. Not the end of the world — and certainly worth it on a home you really want. But it’s silly to drop that cash on a home inspection only to discover deal-breaker items you could have found on your own.

So this checklist is for you to go over once you’ve decided you like the house and want to make an offer. You don’t need special tools or training — you just need eyeballs, a notebook and pen, and a marble. If you’re feeling ambitious, take a tape measure.

General

Windows: Check that they open and close easily. Any broken panes?

Doors: Check that they open and close completely. Do they stick? Lock? Scrape the floor at any point?

Floors: Any creaking? Obvious unevenness? Place a marble on the floor and see if it rolls to check for slant. (Do the marble test in multiple locations in the house.)

Walls: Any holes?

Trim: Any damage or missing pieces? Animals can be brutal to wood trim, and matching old trim is almost impossible.

Lights: Turn on every light switch to make sure they work. (Note: If the home is unoccupied and the power is turned off, this won’t be possible.)

Stairs: Walk up and down the stairs and touch every spindle on the railing. Do they seem sturdy or wobbly? Do the stairs creak? Are any parts missing?

Outlets: Get a voltage tester at your local big box home improvement store for less than $20 and test every single outlet.

Furnace: Look at the furnace. Are there any stickers that indicate installation date?

Water Heater: Check for water around the base of the water heater. Any stickers on this to indicate installation date?

Kitchen

Cabinets/Drawers: Open every cabinet and drawer, then close again. Do they move smoothly? Does anything prevent any of the doors or drawers from easy use?

Oven: Open and inspect the oven. Does the door open slowly, indicating the springs still work? What is the condition of the oven? Turn on the oven to make sure it works.

Stove: Turn on each burner on the stove. If gas, turn on and turn off before turning the next one on to make sure they all turn on by themselves, rather than catching the flame from an adjacent burner. If they all work individually, turn them all on to make sure they all work at the same time. If electric, just turn them all on.

Fridge: Open the refrigerator/freezer doors. Do they open easily? Note: Do NOT do this if the home is vacant and appears to have been vacant for some time. Trust me on this one. Assume it must be replaced.

Dishwasher: Open and inspect the dishwasher. Do the springs work on the dishwasher door?

Faucet: Run the water in the sink. How is the pressure?

Garbage Disposal: Does the garbage disposal run? (Don’t forget to turn on the water before you test it.)

Cabinet Interiors: Take a good look at the cabinets. Is there adequate storage? Do you have enough drawers? (I once bought a condo that had one drawer in the kitchen. Sigh.)

Microwave: Open up the microwave and take a peek inside. Turn it on to see if it works — but don’t let it run for very long. That’s not good.

Hood: Turn on the range hood fan and light to make sure they work. Peek underneath to check for filth — this is a commonly overlooked area for cleaning.

Stone Countertops: Look at the stone countertop and check for chips and cracks.

Formica Countertops: Check the Formica countertop for chips.

Tile: Check the floor for cracked tiles.

Windows: Open and close all windows.

Home Inspection Electrical Guide Program

Electricity has been a permanent feature in residential occupancies for over 100 years, and it was known to be a cause of fires since the earliest days of its use. I have personally spent many hours sifting through debris after a fire, and I have witnessed homeowners who experienced an electrical fire firsthand in their homes.

This book was NOT written as a step by step guide of how to make a total electrical inspection, but rather as a guide to make certain the Home Inspector is not overlooking the critical areas that have started fires and caused accidents.

Why is fixed wiring the leading cause of a residential electrical fire? This book will not only take you to the causes, but also show the solutions of preventing an electrical fire before it starts with a proper electrical inspection of the home. It’s your moral obligation to provide the upmost in electrical safety to the homeowner.

Experienced investigators uniformly cite high-resistance connections as the most common electrical cause of fires. It has been estimated that 90% of electrical failures occur at connections. Loose wire connections at the receptacle outlets and switches are a common reason for an electrical fire in a residence.

Recent studies have shown that the frequency of fires in residential electrical systems is disproportionately higher in older homes. Three factors that could influence the likelihood of a residential electrical fire are; 1) the effects of natural aging over time on the electrical system wiring and equipment, 2) misuse or abuse of the electrical system components in the home by occupants, and 3) non-Code compliant installations, upgrades, or repairs.

Home Inspections

Home Inspections are an integral part of nearly every residential real estate transaction and knowing what to expect and how to deal with the results, from both the buying and selling side, can mean the difference between having a great experience and a frustrating (and potentially expensive) one.

there are licensing standards in many areas and even in unlicensed areas, there are several trade groups that do a great job of establishing minimum standards, but these standards fall short of truly protecting buyers from the unknown – these standards are really meant to reduce an inspector’s liability and that is not what you want as a home buyer

With that being said, there’s only one certification in the industry that requires inspectors to provide a 100% satisfaction guarantee, an inspection that goes beyond minimum standards providing true protection for buyers and sellers alike, and quality service that is continuously monitored by a third party; that would be the Certified Inspection Expert.

For example, if you move in and discover that a pipe is leaking under a sink, what do you do?  This guide will show you how to get that repair done for free – just by choosing the right home inspector. 

In fact, this website will explain how to be covered against literally hundreds of potential failures at no cost to you – giving buyers true peace of mind while in many regards reducing liability for a seller as well – and it is something that is offered by the leading home inspection companies

Home Inspection

Home Inspection provides you with the ‘information’ you need to make an informed decision about the property being inspected in a clear, concise, and professional manner. We deliver an oral report on site and a detailed, electronic report to all customers following the inspection.

Now that you’ve found a home that you love and want to buy, here’s a thought: Let your head take over for your heart. Make certain this is really the wonderful place it appears to be. The last thing you want is to move into a home unaware of existing or potential problems. Problems that could be costly to repair or, worse, beyond repair.

are impartial and work exclusively for you. Our sole job is to provide you with a comprehensive, fair, independent, objective evaluation so that you know as much as possible about your valuable new investment. You don’t want any surprises when you move in.

take our time poking through a home’s structure and systems… an exploration that’s an invaluable learning and discovery experience for you as well. That’s why we wholeheartedly encourage you to accompany us during the 2-3 hour inspection. This will allow your inspector to answer questions and explain the significance of his observations

We want you to go through the house with us so that we may inform you of any deficiencies or concerns, discuss “how things work”, and also share with you what needs to be maintained and why.  This is why we say “Not just a Home Inspection… A Home Instruction!”  Don’t worry, we are a ‘jargon-free’ company and we will explain everything in terms you can understand.

HOME INSPECTIONS

Home Inspections provide a wide range of home inspection services. Home Inspections believe it’s essential to fully understand all parts of a property before purchasing. Because of this, Home Inspections provide in-depth presentations contains both our findings from the inspection and helpful maintenance tips going forward.

has specific requirements for home inspections and we take pride in adhereing to every recommendaiton they make to provide the best home inspeciton possible.

owned and operated by firefighters and have a deep commitment to helping our communities. Our inspectors are highly trained and held to the highest standards

Home Inspections exceed the continuing education requirements so we can stay up to date on changing building standards. Home Inspections provide inspections for older homes and new builds.

Home Inspections can help ensure structural integrity. Home Inspections know that the the home buying process is stressful, so we’re here to help guide you through the pre-purchase inspection. We’ll make it easy and give you peace of mind

How To Become An Income Tax Preparation

Tips for hiring a tax preparer

Thinking of hiring a tax preparer to file your income tax return? Before you decide, consider all the Tax Department has to offer to ease the filing process:

  • free electronic filing options;
  • free tax assistance sites statewide where department volunteers can help walk you through the electronic preparation and filing process; and
  • income tax forms that perform basic math to help reduce errors on your return. You can fill in these forms online and then print them out for your records.

If you do decide to hire a tax preparer, ask the four simple questions below to ensure the preparer you hire is, as most are, honest and in compliance with the tax law. Don’t fall prey to a tax preparer scam.

While taxes may seem difficult, you don’t want just anybody who advertises tax filing to prepare your return. Unfortunately, the tax preparation industry isn’t regulated, and some tax businesses are run by untrained or dishonest people.

You may be tempted to go to businesses that are known to generate large tax refunds. However, be careful and make sure that the tax return is prepared accurately. Ultimately, you (as the tax filer) are held responsible if there are errors or negligence associated with the return.

Luckily, there are steps you can take to ensure that your tax return is accurately prepared by a trained and experienced tax preparer.

Are you registered with the IRS and New York State?

Tax preparers registered in New York State must meet continuing education requirements and minimum qualifications. Attorneys, certified public accountants, and IRS enrolled agents don’t need to register, but do have other professional requirements.  

Ask to see the preparer’s registration certificate or proof that they aren’t required to register. You can also see Verify your tax preparer to search for your tax preparer in an online database of authorized preparers.

How much will your services cost?

Ask to see a list of fees. Fees should be directly related to the services provided—not the refund amount. Also, by law, preparers may not charge you extra for electronically filing your New York State return.

How will I receive my refund  

Your refund should never be deposited into your preparer’s bank account. The fastest and safest way to receive your refund is to have it directly deposited into your bank account. However, the Tax Department can also mail you a refund check.

Check the preparer’s qualifications.

Unfortunately, there are no regulations for paid tax preparers, so you need to do your own research and take precautions. Make sure your tax preparer has a Preparer Tax Identification Number (PTIN). A PTIN is required for tax preparers who charge for their services and indicates that the preparer has registered with the IRS. The IRS has a directory where you can verify PTINs and credentials.

Ask about their training. At the minimum, make sure that they have passed a state or federal tax certification exam. The IRS has a guide to understanding tax preparer credentials and qualifications that can help you in finding the right preparer.

Choose a tax preparer who can be contacted later.

If the IRS has questions about the tax return, make sure there is someone to contact for follow-up. Check out the preparer’s reputation with others in the community and get the preparer’s address and telephone number.

Do not leave original documents with the tax preparer.

If the tax preparer needs to work on your return when you are not present, make sure they have scanned or copied the necessary information. Always take your original documents with you.

Insist that the commercial tax preparer sign the tax return in pen.

This is required by federal law. The preparer’s address and Preparer Tax Identification Number (PTIN) are also required on the tax return.

Consider tax preparation software.

If you’re technically savvy, tax preparation software is probably a cheaper and more reliable option than a tax preparer, too. Quite often, tax preparers merely use some tax preparation software package to file your taxes for you anyway, so if you’re not afraid of installing a software package and typing in the numbers yourself, you should just use a package like TurboTax. The software essentially walks you through a questionnaire, telling you where to find all the answers that you need, then fills out the tax forms correctly as you type in the numbers. Again, if your tax situation is relatively simple – typical W-2s and 1099s and no complex business arrangements – filing it yourself with the aid of software that makes it easy is probably a better choice.

The time to call in a tax preparer is when things are a bit more complicated, such as when you’ve bought and sold a number of investments or have business holdings or business income, or if you’ve received money from a trust or other atypical sources. While software can still guide you through these situations, it doesn’t always find the best way to organize them and file them, and the eye of a knowledgeable tax preparer can really make the difference here.

Search for free tax programs.

There are several free government programs that prepare taxes free of charge if you meet an income requirement; go to the IRS’s Free File page for more information. Most will also file your state return as well. If not, check with your state’s Department of Revenue to find out about their programs.

New tax laws can create confusion that dishonest preparers will capitalize on, so taxpayers should always review their return before signing and ask questions on entries they do not understand. Also be sure to get a copy of the return for your records. Finally, do not ever sign a blank tax form or one filled out in pencil!

What Licenses and Certifications Do Tax Preparers Need?

Technically, tax preparers only need a PTIN (Preparer Tax Identification Number) from the IRS in order to legally prepare taxes. However, the IRS encourages taxpayers to choose well-qualified tax preparers, so many tax professionals choose to pursue some of the additional education and credentials listed below.

Different Types of Tax Preparers

Enrolled Agents (EA)

Enrolled Agent status is the highest credential awarded by the IRS to professional tax preparers. These tax professionals must pass a three-part exam and pursue continuing education each year in order to maintain their certification.

Certified Public Accountants (CPA)

CPAs are among the highest credentialed tax professionals. CPA requirements vary slightly by state but most require a bachelor’s degree, some graduate-level education, two years of professional experience, and a rigorous four-part exam.

Note that not all CPAs work as tax professionals.

Other Tax Preparers and Annual Filing Season Program Participants (AFSP)

Non-credentialed tax preparers can still pursue education through the AFSP. This optional program was created by the IRS and  “aims to recognize the efforts of non-credentialed return preparers who aspire to a higher level of professionalism.” Participants must obtain 18 hours of continuing education, including a 6 hour Annual Federal Tax Refresher course.

Pediatric Integrative Medicine

Tips for Finding the Best Pediatric Dentist for Your Child

While you may not actually enjoy going to the dentist, scheduling regular visits is a key aspect of maintaining good oral and dental health. As a dentist, I know that there are several factors that can improve your overall experience at the dentist’s office, and finding a dentist you like and trust is perhaps the most important.

This is especially true for kids, who may suffer from childhood dental anxiety and need a pediatric dentist who can calm their fears.

Not sure how to find the best children’s dentist for your child? I’m going to walk you through the entire process in this article.

With this information, along with a little research into dentists in your local area, as well as consistent, positive reinforcement, your child may begin to actually look forward to his dental visits!

What’s the difference between pediatric and adult dentistry?

All dentists are doctors of oral health. However, pediatric dentists earn a specialization in children’s dentistry by completing an additional 2-3 years of schooling beyond the standard undergraduate degree and four years of dental school required for all dentists.

This additional training focuses on child development and the dental needs of infants and children, which distinguishes pediatric dentists from their colleagues who only see adult patients.

Some of the specific areas of focus of children’s dentistry include:

Preventive and invasive oral care of children: Pediatric dentists learn how to recognize tongue thrust, tongue ties, baby bottle tooth decay, enamel hypoplasia, and other conditions that only affect children.

Developmental and growth issues, related to the mouth, jaw, face and head: Baby teeth are very different from adult teeth, and pediatric dentists must learn how to handle different eruption patterns and the many stages of oral development that infants, toddlers, and children move through.

Treatment of children under anesthesia and sedation by dental sedation services. A good pediatric dentist will emphasize the importance of nose breathing (as opposed to mouth breathing). Learning this key function won’t just improve the experience of a child’s dental visit, but it will also improve sleep and overall health.

Treatment of medically compromised and special needs children, including focus on child psychology: Children with special needs require special dental care, and a pediatric dentist can work with parents to ensure that their child establishes the proper foundation for long-term oral and dental health.

Pediatric dentistry focuses on treatment of babies in the beginning stages of tooth formation, all the way through adolescence. Once a teen has reached 18 years old, the pediatric dentist is required to refer the patient to an practice of general dentistry.

What Makes a Good Pediatric Dentist?

It’s common for children to be nervous about going to the dentist, and it’s common for parents to be a little weary of who they let treat their child. That’s why today, HomeTown Dental is sharing the main traits that make up a good pediatric dentist.

Knowledgeable and Informative

When it comes to your child’s oral health, a good pediatric dentist should know the ins and outs of pediatric dental development. They should also be able to share their knowledge with you, the parent, to help you make sure that you’re doing all that you can for your child’s teeth.

Patience

How many kids do you know that will sit still while a dentist is poking around in their mouth? Those kids are somewhat few and far between, but that’s okay. A good pediatric dentist should be patient and be able to roll with the punches. Many kids will be nervous when they first go back to see the dentist, but as the appointment continues, they will usually start to settle down and become more relaxed. At HomeTown Dental, we do everything we can to ensure that your child starts the appointment on the right foot and stays calm and comfortable throughout the entire visit.

Communicative

One of the ways our pediatric dentist helps to keep the kids calm is to actually engage with them. Many pediatric dentists will only talk to the parents and won’t always initiate a conversation with the child. While it’s immensely important that your child’s dentist keeps an open line of communication with you, they should also be able to connect with your child. Making that connection can help to build rapport between the two and ultimately make for a more successful check-up.

Five Personality Traits Your Pediatric Dentist Should Have

A good pediatric dentist needs to have many qualities in order to make children feel safe and secure when they are at the dentist.

Going to the dentist can be a very scary thing. Even for adults, thoughts of going to the dentist can bring on feelings of fear, dread, anxiety, claustrophobia, and more. Taking this into consideration, it goes without saying that going to the dentist can be downright traumatic for children. Children are much more sensitive and prone to anxiety when it comes to being sat down in a chair and having a masked person stick loud tools into their mouth.

For this reason, a trusted pediatric dentist is absolutely essential when it comes to getting dental work done on children. Pediatric dentists need to possess a special list of qualities if they wish to thrive in their position. Let’s take a look at five personality traits your pediatric dentist should have.

A Love for Children

It goes without saying that your pediatric dentist should love children. Children are much different than adults and they require a certain amount of patience and understanding to effectively care for. Anybody who works with children needs to be kind and patient towards them.

Children may be underdeveloped in terms of mental capabilities, but one thing they can sense better than adults is if somebody likes them or not. If your pediatric dentist truly loves children, your child will be able to tell and will feel more comfortable around them.

Knowledgeable

All dentists need to be knowledgeable, however pediatric dentists need to be especially knowledgeable of children’s teeth. There are many different things pediatrics dentists need to look out for like signs of thumb sucking, pacifier use, and teeth grinding.

Kid Friendly Office

Normal dentist offices are boring and they might scare a child. A pediatric dentist needs to have an office that is decorated and colorful to make the children feel much more at home. They should have things like cartoons playing on a TV, toys, and decorations to take the child’s mind off of the dental work.

Educational

Children need to be educated on why it’s important to brush their teeth, how to brush their teeth, and what will happen if they don’t brush their teeth. A good pediatric dentist should be able to communicate all of this to your child in a way that isn’t boring and monotonous.

Authoritative

Although a pediatric dentist needs to be kind, they also need to be able to get children to cooperate. A good dentist will usually be able to get a child to cooperate with them, without having to boss them around or scare them.

Qualities of a Good Pediatric Dentist

Many dental offices advertise themselves as family dental clinics or even pediatric dental clinics, but that doesn’t actually mean they have a pediatric dentist. A pediatric dentist has a specialized education and desire to work with kids. Before you take your child to a dental clinic, be sure to ask if the dentist is a pediatric dentist. Once you arrive at the office, be on the lookout for these signs that you are in the right place for your child:

Atmosphere tailored for children – Atmosphere shouldn’t end with toys available in the waiting room. The set-up of the whole office should be designed to make children comfortable while giving them room to be kids. The main areas should be child-safe, so that there is no need to constantly hold your child in a death-grip to protect them from the office décor or vice-verse. The exam room, especially, should be a place that promotes comfort. It should be uncluttered and the dental chair easily approached by both children and their accompanying parent.

Child-sized supplies – Kids have smaller mouths – you probably noticed that, right? As much as they can, a pediatric dentist will make allowances for this size difference. For example, pediatric dentists should be able to make the x-ray process a comfortable one with child-sized film. Some pediatric dentists have gone one step further with a digital x-ray sensor that more accurately and painlessly takes the image of the child’s teeth.

Talks on the level appropriate for each child – A good pediatric dentist will be able to talk to children to help them understand what is happening. They will be mindful that young children might find the environment and tools a little intimidating. Talking to a child at the right level is a learned and practiced skill that every parent should expect of their child’s dentist.

Adjusts approach to fit the individual child – Every child is different, so It is important for a dentist to be flexible and accommodating. Not every girl likes princesses and not every boy likes pirates, but every child likes adults to talk at their level and show interest in them.

Respect, patience and care – Children need to feel respected and cared for by the dentist before they can trust them. A good pediatric dentist understands this! It might take a little more time, but it makes for a happier patient and a brighter dental future.

What’s the best way to make my child feel comfortable at the dentist?

While it’s important to get your child to the dentist early and often, this is obviously better accomplished if your child feels comfortable at the dentist’s office. Choosing the right dentist has a lot to do with that, but as a parent, there are other things you can do to put your child at ease.

Let him know that the appointment is coming up: Don’t wait until the day before the visit to tell your child that he has an appointment. Children react better when they are given time to mentally prepare.

Read dental-related kids’ books to put your child at ease: Check out the library or the Internet for resources that will help calm and even excite your child about taking care of his teeth and mouth.

Listen to his comments, questions, and concerns: Try to be as forthcoming as you can if your child expresses any worry about the appointment.

Try deep breathing techniques: Encourage your child to breathe slowly and deeply in order to calm their mind and body. This process works before and during the visit.

Emphasize the positive aspects of proper dental care: A childhood filled with quality, consistent dental care will provide a great foundation for your child’s ongoing dental health. Not only will it form good habits, but it will prevent the more serious issues he could have as an adult.

Role play through a dental visit: You won’t have all the supplies, but you can have fun going through some of the possible steps that will occur during a routine visit while having fun pretending with your child.

Hints From An Expert Deep Cleaning Company

How to Make Your Own House Cleaning Schedule

Planning is always the best part of doing anything. This is when you get to dream about the happiest path possible to reach your end goal – a home that is quick and easy to clean. But the house is not going to clean itself. So I do advise that you don’t treat planning like you’re writing a novel which needs editing.

Do it quickly!

Then start working even if you’re not finished with the schedule. For me the house cleaning schedule is the second phase of planning. It comes right after the making of checklists. So this should not take more than 30 minutes to complete.

However, if this is the first time you’re trying this out it may take a little longer. Making a schedule is one of the most difficult phases of the planning process. Failure to properly estimate the amount of time a cleaning task needs – can be demotivating. This is especially true when you don’t meet your goal or see and enjoy the impact of the effort you put in.

It all starts with your calendar. One that shows all the commitments you’ve made for your time. Now, we may have a tendency to treat cleaning as a low priority, but you should avoid that. Make it a priority. Meaning that if you put on your schedule that breakfast dishes should be cleaned and put away before leaving the house in the morning. Then do what you need to do in order to make that happen – even if it means waking up a little bit earlier.

Once you add the cleaning task to your calendar treat it like sacred time not to be usurped – unless there is an extreme emergency. Put your cleaning tasks in the timeslots when you will complete them. Although we do have a habit as human beings to under estimate the amount of time a task will take – there are steps we can follow to mitigate that issue

COVID busters: Just how deep is a deep clean?

Forget feather dusters and mops. Fogging machines, steamers and a special double wipe are the key weapons in the fight against the highly infectious coronavirus. Who deploys them and how is the work regulated?

Usually, they’re donning their hazmat gear to scrub down crime scenes or shuttered meth labs. But in recent months they’ve been lending their decontamination expertise to a new (and booming) market: coronavirus “deep cleans”.

This may well be the year of the big clean. As the pandemic rages around the world, offices, shops, hotels and homes are being wiped down like never before – sometimes three, four, even five times a day. Airlines have pulled out the kinds of chemicals usually reserved for nuking superbugs and herpes in a bid to keep passengers safe from the contagious new virus that causes COVID-19.

How does a deep clean kill the virus?

We live in a sea of viruses – most can’t hurt us – but right now we are on the hunt for one in particular. We can’t see it with the naked eye but when we breathe it out indoors it can build up in the air, and when we cough and sneeze it can shoot out in bigger viral balls known as droplets.

Sometimes it will stick to surfaces, surviving for hours or even days. It will eventually break down and die and it is still unclear how much of the virus you would need to ingest to fall sick – say, from touching a door handle and then touching your mouth or nose. Surface contamination is not considered the main way people catch COVID-19. Patients mostly seem to pick it up while in close proximity to someone who is infected, when the microbe is still lingering in the air or falling in droplets between them.

Housekeeping Guide for Deep Cleaning during Covid-19

hotels use cleaning products and protocols that are approved for use and effective against viruses, bacteria and other airborne and blood-borne pathogens. We are working with our vendors, distribution partners and suppliers to ensure an uninterrupted supply of materials.

Public Spaces and Communal Areas. The frequency of cleaning and sanitizing has been increased in all public spaces with an emphasis on frequent contact surfaces including, but not limited to, front desk check-in counters, elevators and elevator buttons, door handles, public bathrooms, stair handrails, gym equipment, dining surfaces and seating areas

Guest Rooms. Industry leading cleaning and sanitizing protocols are used to clean guest rooms, with particular attention paid to high-touch items including television remotes, toilet seats and handles, door and furniture handles and locksets, water faucet handles, telephones, light switches, temperature control panels, table tops and flooring.

Laundry. All bed linen and laundry will be changed daily and continue to be washed at a high temperature. Dirty linen will be bagged in the guest room to eliminate excess contact while being transported.

Back of the House. The frequency of cleaning and sanitizing will also increase in high traffic back of house areas with an emphasis on the employee dining rooms, employee entrances, uniform control rooms, employee restrooms, loading bays, offices, kitchens and security scanning areas.

COMMERCIAL DEEP CLEANING

The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has shaken the world and as a result, people have turned their attention to Deep cleaning, and we have thus experienced an increase in demand for our Commercial deep cleaning and deep cleaning disinfecting service.

Responsive cleaning specialists with particular expertise in Deep cleaning and believe that it is our duty to respond to the needs of our clients, especially during these unprecedented times. In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, we have developed a new ‘Coronavirus cleaning’ and Antiviral Sanitisation service, based on Public Health guidelines, in an effort to help reduce the risk of infection.

currently offering the following services;

Coronavirus Deep Cleaning & Virus decontamination

Fogging

Commercial Coronavirus Deep cleaning

Back to work Deep Cleaning & Workplace Antiviral Sanitisation

Welfare Deep Cleaning & Disinfecting

Construction site Deep Cleaning & Sanitisation

Office space Deep Cleaning & Disinfecting

Back to work’ Deep cleaning

Many workplaces have been closed for several weeks now, as many companies began initiating working from home policies even before the official lockdown had been announced. Concerns of the lasting impact of the Coronavirus on businesses and the wider economy are rife and more and more companies are eager to return to work. It therefore makes sense then, to begin planning for a return to work, as soon as is physically safe and possible. This will of course vary from industry to industry, depending on the nature of the works carried out. A critical step in the planning process for most workplaces will be the implementation of additional cleaning measures to ensure that the workplace is clean, safe and hygienic for its returning staff. It is important however that premises are not only given an initial thorough Deep clean, aka a ‘Back to work clean’, but that practices are in place to ensure regular maintenance is achieved.

Disinfection of all visible and accessible areas with fogging machine – this is the quickest solution and the cheapest, and also gives a fast turnaround meaning staff can return to work quicker. However, it is not as thorough as a deep clean. This is particularly recommended for large workplace premises.

Coronavirus Cleaning Guidelines

Enhanced routine for coronavirus cleaning guidelines Bear in mind that these cleaning guidelines for coronavirus are technical and most useful for professional decontamination cleaning companies. If you are a business in need of infection control services due to coronavirus contamination, or more general information relating to the services relevant to your business

Coronavirus cleaning guidelines

These guidelines are designed to help reduce the risk of spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) from contact with contaminated surfaces. We recommend sites adopt enhanced cleaning processes, as it is recognized that our housekeeping procedures, whether provided by our colleagues or a vendor, may not be thorough enough to adequately reduce the risk of coronavirus transmission.

Site leaders are expected to discuss these guidelines with their cleaning services or company employees (as applicable) and ensure that they are immediately implemented

It is also recommended that site leaders (or designee) periodically observe the actual cleaning process to ensure proper implementation

Of primary concern for cleaning and disinfection, site leaders need to be aware of the occupancies and surfaces where frequent human contact might provide a reservoir for COVID-19. While each facility and operation will be different, the following areas should receive focused attention:

Areas of human congregation (including, but not limited to, offices, conference rooms, canteens/cafeterias, locker rooms and reception areas)

Hygiene facilities (including, but not limited to, lavatories/toilets, shower rooms, hand- washing stations)

Dispensaries (including, but not limited to, medical and first aid stations, emergency shower and eyewash stations).

Touch-point cleaning – what surfaces to clean:

​​Canteen tables and chairs

Crockery, trays and cutlery

Sinks, taps and kitchen areas

Toilets AND all surfaces within

Water fountains

Drinks dispensers

Vending machines

Lifts, their doors & buttons

Desktops and all work surfaces

Doorknobs and door handles​

​Light switches and dimmer switches

​Computer monitors, keyboards, mice

Tablets and laptops

​Telephone equipment

All chair rests and arms.

Coronavirus cleaning frequency

The areas highlighted above should be cleaned at least daily and, if possible, between shifts. Sites should use a commercial disinfecting wipe, detergent and water, or commercial anti-microbial products (see Disinfection section below for a list of likely effective cleaning solutions). The general guideline is that the more people who contact surfaces, the more frequently that surface should be cleaned.

Internal or external cleaning staff will be responsible for regular cleaning of common areas frequented by employees

Provide disposable wipes or other cleaning products identified in Table 1 (listed further below) so that commonly used surfaces can be wiped down by employees before each use.

Learn How To Get Rid Of Raccoons

How Do You Get Rid of Raccoons in The House?

Raccoons are intelligent creatures capable of living in many different environments and climates. This means, of course, they can easily adapt to living in your house. Raccoons can get inside through crevices or openings around attics, basements, or even inside walls. Once raccoons are inside, it can be difficult to get them to leave.

Why Do Raccoons Go Inside Your Home?

Raccoons like to go into houses because they make excellent food sources and den sites. The animals typically fight with one another over food and shelters because up to 15 and 25 raccoons can live within 1 square mile of one another.

Mother raccoons in particular enjoy houses because they are safe areas where they can have their babies. Raccoons avoid areas where humans frequently go, so they don’t nest in the living room or the kitchen. Instead, they will likely hide in low-traffic areas like attics and basements where they can sneak in and out with food.

What Do Raccoons Like to Eat?

Raccoons are omnivores, which means they eat meat and plants. Indeed, they will eat most things they can get their paws on, including bugs, fish, fruits, vegetables, and edibles from human trash bins like pizza crusts and crackers.

Does Raccoon Bait Work?

Raccoon bait is special, edible material designed to attract raccoons either to lure them into a trap or away from a certain area. It can be a liquid, paste, or kibble. Most are not poisonous and are highly effective in attracting raccoons through the use of scents like anise or animal musk. Raccoons, though very intelligent animals, can’t resist the scent of a gourmet meal and will normally dive headfirst into a delicious-smelling bait that’s set out for them.

How To Get Rid of Raccoons

Raccoons—the garbage-eaters we love to hate—are adorable from afar but problematic up close. These nuisance animals are universally recognized by their bandit-like faces and mischievous squeaks, but for those who don’t know, raccoons are small mammals that can grow up to 23 pounds.

Found ransacking trash piles throughout the United States, these scavengers enjoy a variety of environments. Right off the bat, most people recognize these little guys by their distinctive gray coat and black facial markings.

A raccoon usually lives for 2-3 years and can make a den almost anywhere. Unfortunately, these freewheeling creatures are opportunistic and love being around humans, who provide tons of food. This means that they’ll invade your backyard without a second thought, burrowing in your garden and nesting on your property in order to eat your scraps.

Where Do Raccoons Live?

Raccoons can live in almost every environment in the United States except the hot southwest and northern mountains. Colloquially called “trash pandas,” they are dumpster divers capable of living in urban regions like cities and neighborhoods. Many also enjoy the countryside where they can find crops, eggs, and even young chicks for food.

They are omnivores, which means they feast on a diet of both meat and plants. These hungry creatures love berries, eggs, rodents, frogs, fish, vegetables, and many other natural foods. When in urban areas, they will dig through the trash and eat things like pizza, cheese, vegetable peelings, and any other human food they find.

Raccoons

Raccoon behaviour

Raccoons are hefty omnivores: larger males can weigh up to 28 kg. These mammals adapt well to urban areas, because they eat just about anything: worms, spiders, frogs, eggs, fruit, nuts, corn… And they aren’t at all shy about going through garbage to get their paws on a meal.

Raccoons retire to their dens for the winter around mid-November. Males leave the den in late January; females follow in mid-March. They sometimes use spaces under porches, garden sheds and similar structures as living quarters. And since they are excellent climbers, they’re also attracted to hollow trees and roof structures. Raccoons are born in the spring and spend the next three seasons with their mother.

Are raccoons useful or bothersome?

A raccoon’s diet includes small rodents and insect pests.

Raccoons wreak havoc in garbage.

They lurk around homes and can become aggressive if you get in their way.

Like skunks, they can do damage to lawns while digging for white grubs.

Raccoons can get into attics, disturbing insulation and leaving droppings behind.

Raccoons can carry rabies. Keep your distance, especially if you come across one that doesn’t seem at all timid. Stay out of its reach and, ideally, make sure you have somewhere you can retreat to in case of danger

Tips for keeping raccoons away from your home

1. Keeping raccoons off your lawn and out of your garden

Make sure your lawn is treated for white grubs, to deprive raccoons of this source of food.

2. Keeping raccoons away from your garbage

Use a garbage can with a lid that is difficult to remove, or leave garbage bags in a bin equipped with a hinged lid that locks.

Clean the can and bin often to eliminate “attractive” odours.

Another strategy is to wait until the morning on garbage day to take out the garbage.

3. Keeping raccoons away from your house, shed or garage

Trim back any branches that could help a raccoon get at your house.

Make sure your roof soffits are secured, and screw metal screens over roof vent and chimney openings.

Block off any routes leading underneath the porch, deck or shed (using chicken wire, sheets of tin or cement). First make sure no adult or young raccoons are already inside.

How to trap a raccoon?

If, despite your efforts to deter them, raccoons (or other animals) are causing damage to your property, you can consider capturing and relocating them. You should know, however, that “evicting” a raccoon is no easy task—it’s even a dangerous one

Getting Rid of Raccoons

Many people think they can easily get rid of a raccoon once it’s nested in their attic or chimney. So, they use common sense approaches to getting rid of raccoons. For example: playing loud music where you think they may be. They like a peaceful and quiet environment. So, playing loud music can help make the raccoons leave.

But, these methods have their own drawbacks. Namely, raccoons running further into your house, or neighbors grumbling about the loud music at all hours

The safest technique to get rid of raccoons for good is to get in touch with a certified specialist to take care of your raccoon problem. Removal’s professional removal experts are trained to humanely catch and remove the troublesome raccoon from houses and attics.

How Do I Know If I Have A Raccoon Problem?

Just seeing a raccoon is not a sign of an issue. However, if you see a raccoon continuously or in combination with a scratching sound in your attic at night, in your crawlspace, or see noticeable damage such as missing siding, debris, insulation, uncommon smells, family pets showing signs of attack, and so on.

If they stick around they continue to cause carnage. In addition to raiding trash bins, they consume pet food (often entering into homes through dog or cat doors!), consume bird food out of your bird feeders, and destroy lawns going after beetle grubs and earthworms.

Getting raccoons out

Before evicting raccoons from your house, you need to figure out how they’re entering (that is, if you don’t want them coming right back in). Give your house a thorough inspection to find areas where raccoons could get in by viewing your house from the perspective of an animal looking for a den.

Is there anybody in there?

To determine if an opening is being used, block the hole loosely with wadded newspaper. Leave in place for two to three days. If the newspaper goes undisturbed, and the weather has not been particularly cold or stormy, no one is using it as an entryway. If the newspaper is pushed out of place, someone has moved in.

Raccoon tenants

Once you know how they’re getting in, find out if your unwanted guests happen to be a mother raccoon with young. If so, the best thing to do is wait a few weeks until the babies grow old enough to leave with their mother—they won’t survive without her. Don’t try to trap and relocate the family yourself. It almost always leads to separation (and probably death) of the young raccoons, unless done by a professional who knows how to reunite mothers with their offspring. The reunion approach allows the mother move her young to another den site at her own pace.

One-way doors

Some professionals use a “one-way door” to get raccoons out of attics or crawl spaces. Once the animals have left, they’re unable to get back inside. Use of these doors is best left to professionals, who can make sure that mothers are not isolated from their litters. The young must be old enough and mobile enough to exit through the one-way door with their mother, and this can be very hard to assess.

Humane harassment to get them out

If you know that you are dealing solely with adults, you can start using humane techniques to get them to leave on their own.

Start small. Gentle techniques may be all you need. Try bright lights, loud noises (set a loud battery-operated radio in the attic or in the fireplace), and unpleasant smells (try a bowl of cider vinegar at the base of the chimney).

Combine techniques. Multisensory harassment works best: light, noise, and smell.

Choose the right time—at dusk, right before the mother’s normal activity period. Don’t drive raccoons out during the day. Raccoons are primarily nocturnal, so they may be confused in daylight, and they are certainly more vulnerable.

Truck Tires Innovators And More

All About Truck Tires

When searching for tires, you might hear of two types: P-metric and LT. P stands for passenger, and LT stands for light truck. Neither of these is used for a semi-truck and you would be best to avoid them.

Commercial tires don’t have a specific typing, so we will just call them commercial tires. Commercial tires tend to have more tread and are made of harder rubber, making them less likely to puncture but also make the drive less comfortable for the driver. They also cost a lot more than a standard passenger tire, in part because of their design and in part because of their size. Don’t try to use a P-metric or LT tire in substitution for a commercial; that’s a safety hazard.

Understanding tires

The above string of characters might seem like gibberish to the untrained eye, but it tells us a lot about the tire. What does this combination mean? Because each section represents something different, let’s take it one step at a time.

225-Tire width. Tire width can be displayed in terms of inches or millimeters. You should be able to tell which just by looking at the number, a 225-inch tire would be more than twice as wide as the truck itself, and a 9-millimeter tire would be too small for a bicycle, let alone an 18 wheeler.

/80-Aspect ratio. The slash might make you initially think the aspect ratio is the width divided by 80, but clearly, the height of the tire is larger than 3 millimeters. No, this number represents the percentage of the length of height to width, with the slash being a divider to separate the width and the aspect ratio.

R-Tire type. R stands for radial (steel belts inside running 90-degrees from the direction the tire is facing), a dash is bias-ply (nylon belts running anywhere from 30 to 45-degrees from the direction the tire is facing). Much less common are B for bias belt and D for diagonal.

22-Diameter. Not the diameter of the tire, but rather the diameter of the hole in the center of the tire. A 22-inch wheel is a perfect fit for this tire.

119-Load index. How much weight a single tire can hold. The further down you go, the more each number adds. 119 is 1,360 kilograms or about 3,000 pounds.

U-Speed rating. How fast the tire can go under its maximum load. A tire can go faster than this at a lower load, and generally, the speed limit will be much lower than your tire’s speed rating anyway. A U rating is 124 MPH.

When to Replace Tires

Even if your tires still have plenty of tread remaining, their structural integrity may be diminished — an aging effect that’s not always visible to the naked eye and makes your tires more susceptible to blowouts.

Most tire and automobile manufacturers recommend that tires should be replaced every 6 to 10 years regardless of use, regular rotation and lack of damage, with 10 years being the absolute maximum service life. This range applies to the tires you drive on every day, as well as spare tires. Still not sure when you should replace your tires? Be sure to check your owner’s manual for specific recommendations for your particular set of tires.

Bubble in Tire Sidewall

If you have a gumball-shaped bulge sticking out from the side of your tire, it should not to be ignored. It is usually not a defect and is a lot more dangerous than it looks because it’s actually an air bubble on your tire that could cause a deadly blowout. Side tire bubbles aren’t repairable — the entire tire must be replaced before a blowout occurs.

If you have a bubble on the side of your tire, be sure to drive slowly and take your vehicle in to your nearest tire repair shop or auto dealership. It’s a ticking time bomb that could quite literally explode at any time — when, for example, you’re cruising at 80 miles per hour down the highway — causing a blowout that can put your life and others’ lives at risk. In fact, the NHTSA has estimated that 11,000 crashes each year are caused by tire failure.

And, if you’re replacing one tire, it’s best to replace at least two tires. If you’re routinely rotating your tires, it’s best to replace tires in sets of two or four to maintain even wear. It might sting financially at first, but replacing tires in sets will surely save you money in the long run. If you do buy two tires instead of all four, you should always have the new tires installed on the rear axle and move the old, partially worn tires to the front axle — those new rear tires will provide the utmost traction and control.

Dry Rot on Tires

Keep an eye on your tires — if you notice spider-like hairline cracks, or dry rot, along the sidewalls and tread, then it’s a good idea to have your tires inspected by a professional. Dry rot causes tires to fall apart and separate from the steel belt.

Another indication that your tires have dry rot and should be replaced is if they have turned from black to a dull gray wherever the cracks appear. This condition is common in vehicles that are stagnant or improperly stored. If you do notice dry rot forming on your tires, make sure to get them replaced before you do any high-speed driving.

Dangerously Low Tire Tread

Last but not least, tire tread should be factored in when considering whether to replace your tires. If the tread on your tires is worn and bald, your traction and your safety are impacted. A healthy tread helps your tires grip the road and your vehicle quickly respond in adverse weather.

You should be sure to check the tread regularly and replace your tires if the tread has been worn down to 2/32″. When your tread gets this low, replacing your tires isn’t an option — it’s a legal requirement. By law, your tires are considered to be exhausted and unsafe for driving when they reach that 2/32″ level.

What Is The Difference Between Car and Trailer Tires

One of the great things about this time of year is the cooler weather and enjoyable time that can be spent outdoors. It’s a great time to hitch up the trailer and head out of town for a long weekend and enjoy the changing season . While spending more time driving and on the road, the possibility of experiencing a flat or other tire malfunction is increased. It might even be tempting in a stressful situation to consider putting a trailer tire on your vehicle or vice versa, but that could be risky decision.

At the most fundamental level, vehicle tires and trailer tires are built differently –from the sidewalls and tread to the ply and structure. Yes, they are both tires but their functions and the duties that they perform to keep you on the road are different.

Truck or car tires are made to be on a lead vehicle. They have thick tread to maintain traction on slippery road and sharp turns. They are also designed to handle the higher speeds of highway driving.

Trailer tires, on the other hand, are designed to be on a following vehicle. They have thicker sidewalls to handle debris and other objects that maybe projected at them. The tread is not as thick as car tires and they are not as capable at maintaining traction. In fact they are specifically designed to accommodate the sway that trailers typical experience. Because it is not recommended to drive above 80 miles per hour with a trailer, trailer tires can not handle speeds much greater than 80.

If your vehicle and your trailer have the same size tire, it is strongly discouraged that you share tires between them. Both keep you moving down the road smoothly, but they perform different functions that really can’t be interchanged.

TIRE POSITION

The type of tire is not the only factor in the quality of your drive, but where you place the tire. There are three general locations to put a tire to get different changes in results:

Steer tires. The frontmost tires on your truck, and arguably the most important ones. These tires impact your truck’s handling.

Drive tires. Located where the truck meets the trailer, these tires are the ones turned to make the vehicle move. These tires determine your truck’s grip on the road, so high traction tires are a must during the winter seasons and are still a good idea otherwise.

Trailer tires. Located at the back with the trailer, these tires tend to be especially stiff to better support the weight put upon them.

You can either purchase tires specifically for the position or use all-position tires to place them anywhere. If you place a specifically marked trailer tire in the steering area, though, you may have a hard time steering.

Home Renovation Advice For Dealing With Contractors

How Much Does A New Shower Installation Cost?

Average Shower Installation Cost

Installing a new shower costs $4,413 on average, with a typical range of $1,724 and $7,311. The total depends mostly on the size, style and material used. A 32 inch square acrylic stall runs from about $750 to $3,000. A custom tile shower of the same size ranges from $4,200 to $8,500. You’ll pay more for replacement, or for special features like a full body shower head.

Walk-in Shower Cost

A tile walk-in shower costs $4,200 to $8,500 for a 32 inch square model. If you need to add plumbing, special features or expensive materials, the total will run higher. Acrylic or fiberglass can not be used for walk-in showers as they can not efficiently seal in water.

Cost to Install Tile Shower

Installing a new tile shower runs $1,800 to $6,850. If you only need to replace the wall and floor materials, the cost to retile a shower ranges from $1,000 to $3,000. Ceramic tiles start at $0.50 per square foot. Natural stone and other high-end options can go up to $15 per square foot.

Shower Installation Costs

Labor usually costs $400 to $1,000 in addition to the price of materials. In many cases, you’ll hire a professional shower installer who purchases a kit from a popular brand, such as:

Bath Fitter

Kohler Luxstone

Showereasy

Schluter Shower System

Cost to Add Shower to Half Bath

The price to add a shower to a half bath ranges from $900 to $12,500. You’ll need a space at least 5’ x 7’ to accommodate three fixtures. This might require you to change the position of walls and plumbing.

How Much Does It Cost To Replace Or Install A Roof?

Average Cost to Replace a Roof

Roofs perform such an essential function that “keeping a roof over your head” is synonymous with the very concept of home. When it comes to maintaining your investment, the smartest money you spend could be on this project. So, while paying $5,000 to $10,000 or more for this project might seem high, understand that there is good reason. A lot of time, effort and equipment is involved in keeping your installation up to snuff.

Outlined in this guide are in-depth prices to give you a realistic sense of installation rates and what’s involved in the process. Always get quotes from at least 3 to 4 professionals so that you get an accurate range that’s within a margin of $2,000 to $3,000. If you’re not sure that you even need this service, hiring a roof inspector costs $100 to $300 and can be very helpful in your decision process.

If you don’t need a complete replacement, then you may want to read this guide on roof repair costs. The rates and services of a handyman can vary widely depending on the market and handyman. A handyman or woman is a skilled generalist. Some jurisdictions require them to have a license, but the term applies to a jack-of-all-trades who performs minor repairs or construction tasks on residential sites.

Cost to Reroof a House

Reroofing a house costs an average of $8,059, with most homeowners spending between $5,351 and $10,835. The project typically involves removing the existing shingles, making spot repairs to the underlying shingle, and installing new shingles. It’s important to note that this price fluctuates depending on factors like:

Size

Pitch

How it’s installed on your frame/deck

Products and supplies

Layers

Code requirements

Skylights, chimneys, plumbing pipes or other features

Roofing Prices

Roofing materials alone cost anywhere from $100 per square to $1,000 per square, depending on the type you choose. For an average roof of 17 squares (according to the United States Census, which puts average home size at 2,200 square feet and two stories), roofing materials typically range from $2,500 to $25,000.

How Much Does It Cost To Remodel A Basement?

Basement Remodeling Costs

Accounting for variables such as square footage, materials, electrical and plumbing, the average basement remodel ranges from $11,041 and $29,366. Some cost as little as $5,000, with top of the line remodels costing over $40,000. The average cost to homeowners is $20,198. Expect to spend between $10 and $35 per square foot depending on the changes made.

Average Basement Remodel Cost

The cost of a basement remodel can be significant, but your potential return on investment is just as considerable. In addition to adding to your living space, the average basement remodeling project also increases your home’s resale value. The National Association of Realtors considers basement remodels to be among the most valuable home renovations.

Importantly, these costs and benefits apply only to remodeled basements that are already finished. Finishing your basement is a separate project, and will cost the average homeowner an additional $3,000 from beginning to end.

How Much Does a Basement Bathroom Cost to Install?

Installing a bathroom in your basement can significantly increase its functionality. Of course, it will also add to the costs of your basement renovation

Some cost factors to consider include:

Plumbing

You will need to connect your bathroom to both water supply and sewage lines. Cost factors include materials, hiring a plumber, and potentially opening up walls to access the necessary areas.

Permits

You need to make sure that everything built and changed during your renovation is approved. Fees to acquire these permits range between $100 and $3,000.

Inspections

After your new bathroom is complete, or you have remodeled an existing space, get it inspected to ensure all plumbing and electrical installation are done correctly. If your bathroom needs to be installed from the ground up, expect to pay somewhere between $6,000 and $15,000 for the entire project. If your basement is already finished but does not yet have the necessary plumbing for a bathroom in the space, you can expect to pay between $200 – $500 to hire a plumber.

How Much Does It Cost To Build An Addition?

Home & Room Addition Costs

The average cost to build an addition or add a room to your home is $45,809. Most homeowners report spending between $21,090 and $70,528. Your total project cost will vary greatly depending on the type of addition, materials used, labor and location of the job. It can cost as little as $5,600 and as much as $125,000 or more.

Home Addition Cost Estimates

The average cost for a home addition ranges from $21,090 and $70,528. The type of home you’re adding onto can vastly impact your final cost.

Cost to Add on to a Ranch House

Expect to pay from $80 to $200 per square foot to add a room to your ranch house. You typically have two options for this project: build out or build up.

Build out

More expensive.

Involves adding a room at ground level and extending the home’s perimeter outward.

You’ll need to pour a new foundation.

You will lose yard and property space

You may have to get a zoning variance to complete the project.

Build up

Less expensive.

Includes adding a room to the second story – or adding an entire second story to a one-story home.

You’ll need to pay to add a staircase to your home

Your contractor may need to strengthen the existing foundation to support the extra weight.

Always check to see if your town has rules regarding the height of your home.

Cost to Build a Second-Story Addition

Building a second-story addition usually runs between $100 and $300 per square foot. It can cost as much as $500 per square foot depending on the quality of materials and complexity of the project. A second-story addition often involves adding an entire level to your home, rather than just an extra room.

How Much Does Landscape Installation Cost?

Plant Installation Prices

Plant installation costs $3,317 on average with a typical range between $1,375 and $5,472. However, you might pay anywhere from $300 to $10,800 or more depending on the size of the job. Plant installation includes flowers, shrubs, trees and grass. Landscaping pros, including designers and installers, charge anywhere from $50 to $150 per hour or $4 to $10 per square foot.

Whether you are moving into a new home or updating the grounds of the home you already live in, landscaping can dramatically change the look of your house and property. You may like a neatly trimmed lawn or prefer a wild and overgrown look, you may live in an arid climate and need to xeriscape, or you may like finely manicured rosebushes. In this guide, we’ll cover all the costs associated with planting and maintaining your beautifully manicured yard and lawn.

How Much Does It Cost to Plant a Tree?

Planting a single tree costs anywhere from $150 to $300 but it’s cheaper to do multiple trees at once. Five small trees ranges from $300 to $700, or $60 to $140 per tree. About 30% of the cost is labor. Most trees you purchase are small to plant, ranging from 5 to 15 feet tall. It makes it easier to transport and install. If you want to DIY this project, you’ll need a truck or trailer for transport, with other simple tools being a shovel and a garden hose.

Cost to Plant a Large Tree

Planting a mature tree, something that’s past the sapling stage and usually more than 15 feet tall, costs $1,500 to $3,000 per tree. They require large machinery to dig, transport and lift into place. The process not only requires larger machines, but more space, time and crew members.

How Much Do Landscapers Charge to Plant Shrubs?

Landscapers charge $25 to $50 per shrub to purchase and install them. They figure the price based on 2 to 3 times the cost of the shrub plus $50 to $100 per hour. Shrubs are priced per a 3 gallon or 5 gallon container and tend to be small bushes and trees.

Different Kitchen Sink Options For Different Spaces

How to Keep Kitchen Sink Drainpipes Clean

The pipes under your kitchen sink have to funnel all kinds of sticky, greasy substances on a daily basis. If you have newer plumbing, with PVC or copper pipes, your sink drain can probably handle all this gunk — but if you have older, narrower iron plumbing, the pipes are likely to clog more often. Keep your pipes clean by controlling what you put in them and flushing them out when necessary.

Prevention

Even if you have a garbage disposal, there are some substances you shouldn’t pour down your kitchen sink. Cooking grease, coffee grounds and fat you’ve trimmed off cuts of meat can accumulate in the pipes and lead to blockages, so always discard these things in the trash. Place a sink strainer over the drain, so large food particles don’t wash down the pipe, and empty the strainer frequently. If you have a garbage disposal, always run cold water down the drain while you use it to flush the ground-up food down and out of the drain pipe.

Using Water

If your sink isn’t prone to clogs and doesn’t develop musty odors, you can probably keep it clean using only water. If your kitchen sink has a stopper, close it once a week and fill the sink all the way. Then release the stopper and let the force of the water flush the pipes clean. If you don’t have a stopper in the sink, pour 3 to 4 cups of boiling water down the drain each week to dissolve grease buildup in the pipes.

Using Bleach

Sometimes water alone isn’t enough to keep pipes clean, particularly if they are old or connected to your local sewage plant. In that case, use bleach to clean and disinfect the pipes and dissolve clogs. Once a month, pour 12 ounces of chlorine bleach straight down the drain at the end of the day. Be careful not to let the bleach sit in the bowl of the sink, especially if the sink is stainless steel. In the morning, flush the pipe thoroughly with water from the faucet. Don’t clean the pipes with bleach if you have recently cleaned the sink with a product containing ammonia.

Using Green Cleaners

If you’d rather not use strong chemicals such as bleach, you can get equally good results with non-toxic, environmentally friendly household products. Whenever your sink begins draining slowly or develops an odor, pour 1/2 cup of baking soda down the pipe and then add 1/2 cup of distilled white vinegar. Close or cover the drain and let the mixture work in the pipe for 3 to 5 minutes. Then pour several cups of boiling water down the drain to wash it clean. Vinegar disinfects and baking soda scours, so together they leave your sink pipes sanitary and free of debris.

basic things you need to consider for your kitchen remodel at a glance

Getting your kitchen renovation underway is quite a daunting task. Even the keenest of home improvers can come unstuck when it comes to project managing a big kitchen refurbishment. With so much to consider it can be hard to know where to start, and it’s all too easy to forget about the small things that matter.

Design style and cabinetry

Explore kitchen designs that suit your personality, your lifestyle and the style of your home. There are no right or wrong conventions, but the style of kitchen you choose should blend perfectly with the rest of your interiors.

If you’re the proud owner of a period property you may be considering a traditional kitchen style. In a contemporary property you’ll have a mandate for much more minimalist and streamlined modern designs. That’s not to say modern kitchens can’t be embraced in older homes, so long as it blends with the rest of the home and is tastefully done.

Flooring

The type of flooring you choose, along with its colour, can have a huge impact on the look of your kitchen. Limestone or marble tile floors are elegant bases for large traditional kitchen spaces. Funky vinyl flooring can add real wow-factor to modern kitchen designs. Kitchen flooring options include:

• Hardwood

• Bamboo

• Laminate

• Rubber

• Vinyl

• Concrete

• Tile (marble, slate, travertine or limestone)

Worktops

As with flooring, worktops can make or break the overall look of the kitchen. Countertops are the workhorse of your kitchen, so durability should be factored into your choice. You’ll need to think about practicality of material for everyday use, the overall style and the colour. The main options for worktops are:

• Granite

• Quartz

• Marble

• Hardwood

• Laminate

• Glass

• Solid surface composite – Corian, Myre, Encore

• Stainless steel

• Concrete

Water activities for sink play – how to keep little kids busy in the kitchen!

thought you might find it useful too! We spend so much time in the kitchen and when we have young children it can be difficult to get anything done. Some children are happy to work, cook or clean alongside us and others are just not interested! Most young children, however, do like water play. I’ve compiled a list of activities to keep young children busy while learning and playing at the kitchen sink

Set Up. The child needs to safely reach the kitchen sink. A Learning Tower or child’s kitchen stand is ideal (we use the FunPod). A stool can work if it is stable. Keep knives, breakable materials and other hazards (pots of hot water) out of reach. You may want your child to wear an apron (a toweling apron is a good option) and a towel on the floor may help too.

Transferring or Pipetting. Teach your child to transfer water or simply play with a pipette. Plastic pipettes are often found in the art section in stores or even a large kitchen baster can work well. The fine motor movement of the child using the pipette can help prepare their hand for writing (develop pincer grip). The large baster uses whole-of-hand movements and really strengthens the hand muscles. As much as possible ensure the child keeps the water in the sink, if this is too much responsibility I would offer another activity.

Scrubbing. Scrub vegetables with a small vegetable brush. I used to buy unwashed potatoes from the market because I knew how much my toddler loved to scrub them. If you have fresh vegetables from the garden such as carrots or other root vegetables invite your child to clean them, it’s a good way for them to contribute to the meal.

Rinsing. Rinse vegetables or salad for dinner. Children can pull apart leafy vegetables such as lettuce and rinse them in their colander or how about in a salad spinner? Children can rinse salad items such as tomatoes, celery or beans. Or they can rinse fruit before consuming them. If anything needs rinsing you can invite your child to help.

Should I install a sink in my kitchen island?

Just wondering what everyones thoughts are regarding having the Kitchen Sink placed in the Island bench? Pros/Cons? Has anyone renovated their kitchen to put the sink in the Island but then regretted their decision?

My partner and I are planning our Renos and he would love to put a sink in the island however I am deadset against it.

No, having an island without a sink is wonderful. In a major remodel many years ago I had an awkward space – a long, narrow galley kitchen. The designers at the time were hung up on this ridiculous concept of the working triangle and designed a sink in the island. As a pretty obsessed cook, I could see it would be a cluttered mess. Instead I placed the fridge, dishwasher, huge single sink and stove/oven in a straight line down one wall. Parallel to this there was a huge island with not a thing on it. The microwave was underneath the island countertop.

i suggest that super neat people who wash up and clear the island sink every time it’s used would have no problem with a sink in the island but i suggest that the rest of us need the island quite empty ready for action even if the sink is still piled up

kitchen sink is in the island bench and we like it there. We have a wonderful view of the outdoors so it is no hardship to work away at the sink & dishwasher. In my last house there was nothing installed on the island, and the sink was on an opposite benchtop, but right in front of a window, so again there was a view to the outdoors.

How to Choose a Kitchen Sink

Your kitchen sink is probably not the place where you’d choose to spend your time, but it’s a necessity—and having the right one can make all those minutes spent scrubbing and rinsing easier and more efficient. Learn about the different materials, types of sinks, and factors to consider as you discover how to select a kitchen sink that fits your needs.

From washing produce to rinsing dishes, a sink is called upon to do plenty in a kitchen. While not as technology-heavy as appliances or requiring as much thought as a layout does, it’s still an important kitchen feature. Learn how to select a kitchen sink with these tips for materials, configuration, and styles.

Kitchen Sink Materials

Kitchen sinks come in many different materials, including metal and stone. The best kitchen sink material for you depends on how much money you want to spend, your cleaning routine preferences, and what material goes best with your kitchen’s style

kitchen sinks are one of the most popular options and the material continues to be improved and upgraded. The newer 16- and 18-gauge sinks are thicker and less noisy than their less-expensive predecessors. Stainless-steel sinks contain a percentage of chromium and nickel, which is indicated by numbers such as 18/10 (18 percent chromium and 10 percent nickel). The metal imparts a rich glow and adds corrosion resistance. Finishes range from a mirrorlike shine to a satin luster. Stainless-steel kitchen sinks are appealing because they are affordable, durable, and easy to clean. However, they can become scratched and water spots can become an issue, and the cheaper sinks can sometimes make more noise when items are dropped in.

kitchen sinks are made from a sturdy material that is enamel fired on an iron form. These durable sinks lessen noise and vibration more than other materials but can be heavy for installation. An added advantage is that cast-iron sinks are available in a wide range of colors.

Roof Inspection Services

How do you know when it is time to replace your roof?

As a homeowner, maintaining your property and ensuring it remains up to code at all times is one of your most important responsibilities. Similar to most investments in life, homes require maintenance and upkeep as years pass to provide maximum comfort, safety, and security.

The longer you have lived in your home, the more likely you have considered investing in a new roof to replace your old roof. Before moving forward with the decision to replace your roof entirely, there are a few signs to watch for to determine whether or not the time is right for you and your home.

Curled or Buckled Shingles

Curled or Buckled shingles are a clear sign that your roof has some age on it. Buckled shingles can occur because of moisture in the attic space forcing nails to push up and out of the roof’s decking. This mishap can leave your home exposed to outside elements as well as being prone to shingle blow-offs during a storm.

Tar Streaking or Algae Growth

Tar Streaking and Algae growth is caused by bacteria eating away at the shingles weatherproofing properties. Cheap shingle manufacturing companies use fillers like limestone to keep the cost of shingle production low. This algae will eat away the limestone causing the black streaking and thus compromising the weatherproofing properties.

Shingles Blown Off the Roof

It this is happening, it means that the shingles have dried, curled, and cracked. Obviously, if the shingles are in your yard then they aren’t on your roof! So when you start to see this it is time to get that roof replaced.

Missing Granules

Missing granules, when viewed from the ground, look like dark patches on light shingles or lighter patches if the shingles are black or dark.  You will also see large amounts of granules in the gutters when you clean them.

The loss of granules do not affect the waterproofing of the roof, so if they are missing you won’t necessarily get leaks.  But the granules protect the asphalt in the shingle from being damaged by the UV rays of the sun. So once they go, the shingles will wear out faster.

Flashing

Flashing is common in chimneys, vents, and even skylights and can help with sealing various seams to protect your home from any type of weather. When you are inspecting your home’s roof, be sure to check all potential flashing areas of your home to determine whether or not the areas are leaking or have cracks in them.

Flashing beams of light can signify a more serious issue that requires immediate attention.

It is also important to note that many old homes typically use a cement flashing system, which is considered outdated today. If you are thinking of updating your flashing system, consider an all-in-one metal solution for longevity and durability.

Streaks and Discoloration

Whenever you are inspecting the interior or exterior of your roof it is important to look for discoloration and off-colored streaks on your roof that simply does not belong. Streaks and discoloration are some of the telltale signs that a roof requires attention, even if it does not require a complete renovation or replacement.

Take note of streaks and discoloration you discover while inspecting your roof. If possible, take photos and be sure to note the approximate location of each of the streaks or discolored beams you have discovered. While some streaks and discoloration just may require a bit of attention, others may be a sign of a deeper underlying issue.

Lack of a Chimney Cricket

If you currently own an older home with a large chimney, be sure to verify that your chimney has a “chimney cricket” installed. A chimney cricket is a solution that acts as an additional roof for a home’s chimney. As the seasons pass and weather changes, chimneys collect debris, dirt, and water buildup. Without a chimney cricket in place, you run the risk of furthering issues in your home from leakage, water damage, and even from nature outdoors. Ensuring your home’s chimney has a chimney cricket in place can significantly reduce the risk of encountering issues with your home’s roof system and your chimney.

Replace your roof if the shingles are in bad shape

The easiest way to tell that you need to replace your roof is that the shingles themselves are starting to look worn. There are a few ways to tell that you will need a new roof based on how your shingles look:

  • The edges of the shingles may be curled or have a cup-like appearance
  • The shingles are cracking
  • There may be bald patches

In short, if your roof is starting to look old and worn out, it’s time for a new one.

Moss is appearing

Another key sign that you may need to replace your roof is that you’re seeing moss on or between the shingles. While it might seem like moss on the roof is a quaint quality that will make your home look like a fairy tale cabin in the woods, it’s a sign of a potential problem.

Moss itself is not an automatic sign that you need a new roof immediately. Moss does naturally grow on or between shingles, especially on roofs that are in shaded or moist climates. But moss could hint at hidden damage.

The problem with moss is that when it rains, the moss absorbs the water like a sponge and holds onto it. The whole point of shingles is to allow water to roll off the roof and into the gutters. When moss is present, it keeps that moisture from going where it’s meant to go. That can lead to the shingles themselves breaking down. Since moss impedes the water from reaching the gutters, it can also lead to that water seeping into the layers under the shingles, causing water damage and mold growth.

So if you see moss, you’ll need to call a roofing contractor to clean up the moss and look for signs of permanent damage.

Consider the age of the roof

Another key factor in determining if you need to replace your roof is the age of that roof. This isn’t a warning sign you can see at times, but it’s worth keeping in mind. Roofs that are at least 20 years old may benefit from replacement with higher quality materials. Typical asphalt shingles last about that long.

Other materials may last longer, however. Slate, copper and clay/concrete roofs can last over 50 years and wood shake roofs can last around 30, for instance. So, depending on what material you have on your roof and the last time it was replaced, it could just be time so that you avoid leaks down the road.

And, remember, for an investment this large, you might want to consider getting materials that will last longer and be more durable, like metal roofing. This is one of those home purchases where a higher up-front cost could mean fewer repairs down the road. It could be a good investment, especially for a home you plan to stay in as long as possible. If you plan correctly, you might not have to replace your roof ever again.

Excessively High Energy Bills

High heating and cooling bills can be from energy escaping due to poor ventilation and insulation in your home, especially in your attic and roof. If you notice you have high energy bills in addition to any of the warning signs listed above, it could be because your roof is under-performing.

A common misconception is that a roof is good for 10-15 years. A new roof should last at least that long, however, if there is mis-application or sub-par materials, the age means absolutely nothing. Use these tips to help protect your home and family and make sure that your roofing system is protecting your home for a lifetime.